Regents Prep: U.S. History: Reform:
Temperance
Background
The Temperance Movement begin in the 1820s, and focused eliminating Frances Willardthe use of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol consumption was seen as an amoral vice, particularly due to the rise of the saloon industry. Saloons introduced gambling and prostitution in an effort to entice customers and encourage them to drink more alcohol. Conservatives and Christians were outraged by this attack on orderly society.

In 1874, Frances Willard formed the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) for the sole purpose of encouraging the prohibition of alcohol consumption.

Prohibition is Passed and Repealed
During the Progressive Era, the Eighteenth Amendment was passed in 1919. This banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol in the United States.

However, America did not stop drinking during the 1920s. In fat if Prohibition was designed to stop amoral behavior it backfired. Bootlegging, the illegal manufacturing and selling of alcohol became incredibly profitable as underground bars called speakeasies stocked up on booze for their clientele.

Bootlegging became its own criminal enterprise leading the establishment of organized crime with the likes of Al Capone in Chicago.

Finally in 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment was passed which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment, ending Prohibition.