The body paragraphs need to thoroughly address all
elements of the task by utilizing information from at least four
documents from Part A, incorporating outside information, and
presenting everything in an organized manner.
This is where the completion of a pre-writing table
really pays off! If constructed and filled in properly, this table
will form the basis of organizing the body paragraphs of theDBQ
essay response. For example:
The colors above highlight the information about
two different foreign policies to be utilized in the essay response.
One approach to writing this essay would be to compose
one body paragraph for neutrality and two
body paragraphs for containment.
Note that at least four documents are used in these
body paragraphs. Each
time a document is used, it is highlighted in yellow. Documents
are also identified by name as well as document number.
In addition to these documents, a great deal of
outside information is included in order to thoroughly address
all aspects of the task. Each
time outside information is used, it appears highlighted in green.
Neutrality is practiced when one
nation refuses to align with other nations or form political
alliances. This was the first foreign policy to be practiced
by the United States. The precedence for its establishment
dates back to President George Washington's Farewell Address
in 1796 (Document 1). In this speech, Washington recommends
establishing trade relationships with other nations, while
steering clear of permanent alliances with any portion
of the foreign world... With these words, the U.S.
began to follow a foreign policy of neutrality which lasted
well over 100 years. Throughout the 1800s, the United States
did not form alliances with any other nation despite the
pressure to do so on countless occasions. In fact, it was
not until the U.S. emerged as a global superpower in the
1900s that it formed any alliances whatsoever. It first
did so on a temporary basis in WWI and WWII, and then permanently
with the formation of NATO designed to combat the spread
of communism through the use of collective security during
the Cold War.
During the Cold War, United States
foreign policy changed dramatically from one of neutrality
to global involvement. Containment, the policy designed
to prevent the spread of communism, meant that the United
States would become involved in regions all over the world.
This policy took shape in post-WWII Europe, which had been
decimated by the conflict. In fact, the American General
Marshall convinced the U.S. Congress to aid in the rebuilding
of Europe to prevent the spread of communism from eastern
Europe into economically depressed areas in the West. This
resulted in the U.S. providing nearly $12 billion in aid
to western European countries to stop the spread of chaos
caused by communist influence as evidenced in the political
cartoon with the caption Step On It, Doc! (Document
3). In 1947, President Truman requested funds from Congress
to aid Greece and Turkey in order to prevent communism from
spreading to those two countries (Document 4). Congress agreed, and once
again American intervention halted the spread of communism
in Europe. Because communism never spread beyond the countries
within the Soviet Bloc, both the Marshall Plan and the Truman
Doctrine successfully carried out the foreign policy of containment.
However, containment did not always result in such success.
During the 1960s, President Johnson
attempted to continue the foreign policy of containment
established by his predecessors. In 1965, Johnson stated
that the U.S. needed to defend South Vietnam from communist
forces in North Vietnam because we had been doing so since
1954, and because of terror the South Vietnamese
would face if they were taken over by the North (Document
5). Despite Johnsons decision to escalate America's
involvement in the Vietnam Conflict, by the mid-1970s all
United States military and diplomatic personnel had been
withdrawn from the region, and South Vietnam, as well as
neighboring Laos and Cambodia became communist nations.
The table above formed the basis
for the content included in these body paragraphs. It has allowed
the writer to visualize the flow of the essay before committing to a single paragraph to paper. The facts in the table were embellished
with details designed to thoroughly address all aspects of the