Regents Prep: Global History & Geography:

Diversity Vocabulary List

  1. Ahimsa : In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.

  2. Bhagavad Gita : A Hindu holy book where the god Krishna teaches the importance of selflessness, performing religious duties, and of devotion to God.

  3. Buddha : Hindu for “enlightened one." See also Siddhartha Gautama.

  4. Buddhism : Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.

  5. Christianity : Currently the most popular religion in the world based on the number of worshippers found throughout the world. While this monotheistic religion developed from Judaism, there are several key differences in its teachings. Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century CE. The Christian holy book is called the Holy Bible.

  6. Confucianism : Confucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty, when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism. Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships.

  7. conquistadors : Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches.

  8. cuneiform : One of the earliest forms of writing. It consisted of wedge shaped symbols usually imprinted in clay. Used throughout ancient Mesopotamia.

  9. Elizabeth I : (1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.

  10. filial piety : A part Confucianism where respect is paid to the parents.

  11. Five Relationships : Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend.

  12. foot-binding : A popular practice that tightly bound the feet of young girls, deforming them as they grew older. This was done to achieve the desired cultural practice of having dainty, lady-like feet.

  13. Hammurabis Code : Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in th mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see.

  14. Hinduism : A polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahma. To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, or liberation from the samsara, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life). Because all forms of animal life possess souls, Hindus believe in ahimsa, or that all life is sacred. and should not be harmed. In fact, one animal which Hindus consider to be extremely sacred is the cow. The peaceful and contented existence of cows is considered virtuous by Hindus and would represent a rewarding reincarnation for a soul. For this reason, most Hindus are vegetarians so that they do not harm other living beings. The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma also provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System.

  15. ideology : An organized system of beliefs, values, and ideas. They form the basis of a political, social, and economic philosophy.

  16. Judaism : Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam. Judaism teaches that there is one God who is the creator of all things. after the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, many Hebrews began to lose their faith in God. During this time, Moses went atop Mount Sinai and returned with two stone tablets containing laws that all Hebrews needed to follow. These laws, recorded in the Exodus 20:3-17, became known as the Ten Commandments.

  17. matriarchal : A society or political/social system in which women hold the power.

  18. Moksha : In Hinduism, it is the release from the cycle of reincarnation through unification with Brahma.

  19. Nirvana : In Buddhism, spiritual enlightenment.

  20. Persian Empire : Ancient Middle Eastern empire comprising modern day Iran. The Perisan Empire dominated the Middle East from the middle of the 6th century BCE to about the end of the 5th century BCE, Its greatest ruler was Dairus I. Persia was later conquered by Alexander the Great.

  21. Peter the Great : (1672-1725) Czar of Russia. He was responsible for the westernization of Russia in the 18th century.

  22. polytheism : The belief in many gods or goddesses.

  23. Pre-Columbian : Period of North and South American history before the arrival of the Europeans in the late 15th century.

  24. religion : A person's beliefs concerning the existence and worship of a god or gods, and divine involvement in the universe and human life.

  25. Roman Empire : The territories ruled by ancient Rome which at one time encompassed most of the Mediterranean world and parts of France, England, and Germany. The empire lasted from 27 BCE to 395 CE.

  26. Scandinavian Vikings : Members of any of the ancient Scandinavian peoples. Vikings raided various parts of northwestern Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries CE. They were good sailors who invaded by sea in long ships, and often settled in the areas they invaded, as in Great Britain.

  27. Shinto : Shinto, which means "Way of the Gods," is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on nature. Many consider Shinto to be a form of Animism due to the many similarities found between them. Shinto teaches that there is a sacredness of the whole universe and that humans can be in tune with this sacredness. Every mountain, river, plant, animal, and all the diverse phenomena of heaven and earth have spirits, or kami, which inhabit them. Reverence is paid to the ancestors through the practice of ancestor worship.

  28. Sikhism : A belief system which blends Hindu traditions with Islamic monotheistic traditions. Based in India and Pakistan.

  29. Spanish Armada : A large flotilla of ships sent by Philip II of Spain to attack England in 1588 because of the Reformation. The Armada was destroyed by poor weather and the English Navy.

  30. Torah : The holy book of Judaism. It describes the creation of the world, the history of ancient Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophetic books.

  31. Upanishads : Hindu holy book from the 8th century BCE.

  32. Vedas : A Hindu holy book which is a collection of Aryan hymns that were transmitted orally before being written down in the 6th century BCE.

  33. Vishnu : Hindu god called the Preserver. Vishnu is the second member of the triad that includes Brahma the Creator and Shiva the Destroyer.

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