Ancient Greek and
achievements span two different eras. The Ancient
golden age occurs under the leadership of
in the 5th century BCE. These achievements
were mainly confined to the
city-state of Athens,
where a strong economy and good
government created the
conditions necessary for such advancements.
The Hellenistic golden age occurs under the
Alexander the Great, who conquered
empire stretching from the Greek mainland all
the way to the Indus River Valley.
Hellenistic society was a blending of Greek, Egyptian,
Persian, and many other cultures that gave rise
to advancements in math, science, art, and literature.
The Ancient Greeks were the first to use
as a form of government. Under Pericles, male
citizens in Athens participated in the daily running of
government. This form of direct democracy
excluded all non-citizens, such as women
slaves. Today, many governments around
the world practice some form of democracy.
philosophers, or "lovers of
wisdom," used observation and reason to
study the world around them. This spirit of
inquiry led to advancements in the arts and sciences,
as well as examining the best form of
government for men to live under. Famous
philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Method of questioning as a learning tool.
Favored a strong, controlling government
ideas on government
Favored the one strong and wise rule as best
to be first western philosopher
has three classes: Philosophers, Soldiers, and
Reason was the key to learning
Greek literature was in the form of plays developed
religious ceremonies. Famous writers,
such as Aeschylus and Sophocles, wrote tragedies
and comedies about human conflict and interaction
between the gods and man. These stories were very
popular, and became the basis for modern literature. The
Greeks were also the first historians. Herodotus,
known as the Father of History,
wrote books chronicling historical events, such as the Persian
artists portrayed the human figure in
sculptures show humans in the perfect form.
architects build elaborate buildings using marble
and the Greek column. The most
famous example of Greek architecture is the Parthenon
in Athens. Many buildings around the world today
use Greek architectural ideas.
Pythagoras, developed a
formula to calculate the relationship between the sides
of a right triangle, a method still in use
Aristarchus, a Greek astronomer,
discovered that the earth rotated on its axis,
and revolved around the sun.
Eratosthenes discovered that the earth was
round, and accurately calculated its
Euclid wrote a book called The Elements,
which is the basis for modern geometry.
A Greek scientist named
Archimedes tried to use
science for more practical matters, he showed how the
use of a lever and pulley system
could lift just about any weight.
a 5th century BCE physician, studied the causes of
illnesses and experimented with various cures. He
is also credited with creating a set of ethical standards
for doctors called the Hippocratic Oath.