1750, most people in Europe lived on small farms and produced
most of their needs by hand. A century later, many people
lived in cities and most of their needs were produced by
machines using steam power. The Industrial Revolution
in Great Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the
United States and Japan. It was a fundamental change in the
way goods were produced, and altered the way people lived.
The Industrial Revolution is a major turning point in world
Agrarian Revolution: was a change in farming methods
that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution
was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the
seed drill and improved
fertilizers. The results
of this revolution if farming was a population explosion
due to the higher availability of food. Also, the Enclosure
Movement, which was the consolidation of many small farms
into one large farm, left many people jobless and homeless.
These people would provide the workforce of the Industrial
Geography: Great Britain
has an abundance of the natural resources needed for
industrialization, such as iron ore and coal.
Britain also had access to many navigable rivers
and natural harbors which provided for the easy movement
of goods both within the country, and overseas.
Capital: The British had a vast
empire that provided them with a strong economy. They
had the capital (money) needed to build railroads,
& Energy: Britain experienced a
revolution in energy
use as they switched from animal power, to water
power, to steam power in a few short years.
steam engine was the power source of the Industrial
Mass Production: The use of the Factory System
allowed for mass production of textiles and other goods.
This shifted people from production at home with the
System, to production in large factories in cities. Mass
production also allowed for lower prices on the good produced.
Business: As the Industrial Revolution grew, so did
business. To meet the needs of this growth, business
owners sold shares of their companies to stockholders who
would share the profits and losses. The influx of capital
allowed business to grow into
corporations that had dealing in
many different areas.
Economics: This was an economic philosophy begun by
Smith in his book,
Wealth of Nations, that stated that
business and the economy would run best with no interference
from the government. This economic system dominated most
of the Industrial Revolution.
Social Class Structure
||Very rich industrial & business
families. Old Noble class.
|Upper Middle Class:
||Business people & professionals such
as, lawyers & doctors.
|Lower Middle Class:
||Other professionals such as, teachers,
shop owners, and office workers.
||Factory workers and small farmers.
Urbanization: People moved to towns
and cities to be closer to the factories. Conditions
were very poor during the early part of the Industrial
Revolution, as factory workers lived in over crowded
buildings, with no sewage or sanitation services. This
resulted in widespread disease.
Conditions: Factory workers worked very long hours, for little
pay, under harsh conditions. Workers included children
as young as 8, both male and female. Many people were
injured or killed due to unsafe working conditions.
Changes: New roles were defined for Middle Class
men and women. MC men went to work in business, while MC
women worked from home and cared for the family.
The higher standard of living for the middle class meant that their
children received some form of formal education. Working
Class families faced many hardships due to poor living
and working conditions, and most WC children never received an
Marx wrote in
The Communist Manifesto (1848) that
all of human history is based on the conflict between the
bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the
proletariat (working class). He predicted that the proletariat
would rise up in a violent revolution to overthrow the
bourgeoisie and create a society with an equal distribution of
goods and services. This
socialist theory would form the basis
Revolutions in the 20th Century.
China, India, South East Asia, and others
were controlled by Europe to provide
raw materials and new
markets for industrialized goods. Imperialism had a
negative effect on most of these cultures, and did not
completely end until after
World War II. Imperialism
usually only benefited the European nations.
Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in world
history as it resulted in a complete change in society on all
levels. Effects of the Industrial Revolutions were long
reaching, and influenced many other cultures both positively