Regents Prep: U.S. History & Government
Multiple-Choice Questions
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Gilded Age: Question 1 of 100
In the period from 1865 to 1900, the United States Government aided the development of the West by
  1. maintaining free and unlimited coinage of silver
  2. offering low-interest loans to businesses
  3. granting land to railroad companies
  4. providing price supports for farm products

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: The development of the American west was greatly aided by the development of the railroad. The development of the railroads in America eventually became a corrupt process. Government involvement lead to a scandal under the administration of U.S. Grant. The control of the railroads by a few companies also brought them into conflict with farmers and the government later on.


Gilded Age: Question 2 of 100
In the United States, the main purpose of antitrust legislation is to
  1. protect the environment
  2. increase competition in business
  3. encourage the growth of monopolies
  4. strengthen the rights of workers

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Trusts are monopolies that control all or most of the sales of a specific good or product. Antitrust legislation passed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was designed to stop found to be “in restraint of trade”. Famous antitrust actions from US history include; the 1911 case of Standard Oil Company of New Jersey vs. United States and the court ordered “break-up” of the American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) in the early 1980’s.


Gilded Age: Question 3 of 100
Prior to 1890, United States businesses made few foreign investments mainly because
  1. state governments discouraged foreign investments
  2. foreign investments were prohibited by Congress
  3. foreign nations did not accept investments from United States businesses
  4. investment opportunities were better in the United States

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, the United States was not seen as a “world power”. As such their political and economic intersects did not reach beyond our borders. The result was a lack of US involvement in foreign affairs and business. This would all change after the US’s involvement in the Spanish-American war (1898).


Gilded Age: Question 4 of 100
The Federal Trade Commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the Federal Communications Commission are similar in that each
  1. represents the interests of big business
  2. is specifically provided for in the United States Constitution
  3. has the power to formulate and enforce regulations
  4. must get approval from the states to carry out national laws

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: Following the abuses of the Gilded Age, many saw a need for stricter government regulation of the US economy. This resulted not only in antitrust measures, but an increased number of federal agencies. These agencies became responsible for monitoring and regulating a specific segment of US economic activity. The FTC (regulates products that are traded), ICC, (regulates interstate trade) and the FCC (regulates communications such as telephone and television) are three such examples.


Gilded Age: Question 5 of 100
“Prices and wages should be determined by the marketplace.” The author of this statement would most probably support
  1. government ownership of utilities
  2. minimum-wage laws
  3. wage and price controls
  4. laissez-faire capitalism

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Laissez-Faire capitalism calls for the complete non-involvement of government in the economy. The approach is one of “hands-off”, in which prices, quality and competitive practices are solely determined by competition. This approach was advocated by the English economist Adam Smith in his work The Wealth of Nations and followed by the US government up until the late 1800’s, early 1900’s.


Gilded Age: Question 6 of 100
After the Civil War, one way business leaders tried to eliminate competition was by
  1. forming monopolies or trusts
  2. developing overseas markets
  3. increasing the prices of their products
  4. paying high wages to their workers

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: A monopoly is a business that controls a vast majority or all of the market for a specific good or service. During the Gilded Age (late 1800’s) many areas of the US economy were dominated by monopolistic companies that drove competitions out of business. It was not until the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 that the government made any attempts to regulate or control the business practices of these monopolies.


Gilded Age: Question 7 of 100
In the United States, organized labor made its greatest membership gains when
  1. the right to unionize and bargain collectively was guaranteed by legislation
  2. international competition began to threaten jobs in the United States
  3. the major business groups encouraged unionization
  4. the economy began to shift from manufacturing to service employment

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Collective bargaining is the idea in which workers cooperate to achieve a common goal. In collective bargaining, representatives of the workers will negotiate with the management to secure gains for all workers, as opposed to the individual worker negotiating for him/herself. This concept greatly increased the power of workers to pressure for concessions and increased the power and prominence of the union movement.


Gilded Age: Question 8 of 100
Which factor most limited the growth of labor unions during the late 1800’s?
  1. Most employers were very hostile toward workers’ efforts to organize.
  2. Most factory workers were satisfied with their wages and working conditions.
  3. The Federal Government declared that unions were illegal.
  4. Workers preferred to negotiate with factory owners as individuals rather than as members of a group.

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Many industry owners felt threatened by the growth of unions in the late 1800’s. They rightly feared that union growth could force them into conceding higher wages, improved conditions and shorter work hours.


Gilded Age: Question 9 of 100
In the 19th century, the major national labor unions wanted to improve the position of workers mainly by
  1. obtaining the legal right to organize and bargain collectively
  2. using government troops to settle labor disputes with management
  3. supporting government ownership of major industries
  4. endorsing a third political party for workers only

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Collective bargaining is the idea in which workers cooperate to achieve a common goal. In collective bargaining, representatives of the workers will negotiate with the management to secure gains for all workers, as opposed to the individual worker negotiating for him/herself. This concept greatly increased the power of workers to pressure for concessions and increased the power and prominence of the union movement.


Gilded Age: Question 10 of 100
During the latter half of the 19th century, many business organizations in the United States combined into large corporations because
  1. income levels for workers would be improved
  2. government intervention in economic affairs would decline
  3. efficiency in production methods could be increased
  4. economic possibilities outside the United States could be explored

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: The advantage of larger corporations over smaller ones becomes clear when considering the idea of “Economies of Scale”. The idea is a simple one, a larger corporation will make more of a given product and as a result buy more of the raw materials needed in production and negotiate a lower cost for those materials. The result is that a bigger corporation will be able to offer the same product at a lower overall cost to consumers, giving it the advantage in the marketplace against smaller competitors. Corporations such as Standard Oil used this advantage to lower prices and drive many smaller companies out of business.


Gilded Age: Question 11 of 100
Many reformers who opposed the laissez-faire attitude of the late 19th century argued that
  1. the National Government should not interfere in the activities of big business …big business
  2. national wealth could best be assured by the accumulation of gold
  3. the idea of rugged individualism is vital to the nation’s economic growth
  4. government should protect society through the regulation of business

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Many people during the Gilded Age were frustrated with business taking advantage of workers as well as the US consumers. There was a growing call in the late 1800’s for the government to step in and regulate the economy, insuring safety and fair prices. The best example of this can be seen in the Granger movement. The Grangers (farmers) called for the regulation of the railroad companies that were charging unfair rates and exercising monopoly power over transportation. The resulting government action was the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act and the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the railroads and their rates.


Gilded Age: Question 12 of 100
A major way in which the United States has practiced "economic nationalism" has been to
  1. implement protective tariffs to help American industry
  2. establish social welfare programs to aid the poor
  3. pass legislation outlawing most monopolies
  4. require industry to provide safe working conditions for employees

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Protective tariffs have been used throughout American history to protect US businesses from foreign competition. The idea is that by taxing imports the relative price of comparable US made goods will be cheaper, resulting in increased sales of US made goods which will aid US businesses. This approach was advocated earliest on by Alexander Hamilton as part of his 5 part economic plan to grow the fledgling US economy and protect US industry.


Gilded Age: Question 13 of 100
In the United States, industrial unions of the 1880’s and of the 1980’s had similar goals in that both campaigned for
  1. national health insurance
  2. better unemployment insurance
  3. greater job security and higher wages
  4. wage and price freezes

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: In the 1880’s the main fear of American Unions was competition for jobs from floods of unskilled immigrants, in the 1980’s the fear was the relocation of manufacturing facilities from the US to Latin America and Asia where wages are a fraction of what US workers make.


Gilded Age: Question 14 of 100
In response to the demands of farmers and small business owners, Congress enacted laws in the late 19th century that
  1. supported the organization of farm cooperatives
  2. regulated the activities of railroads and trusts
  3. provided direct payments to farmers to help them buy modem machinery
  4. dropped tariff rates to the lowest point in the century

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Many people during the Gilded Age were frustrated with business taking advantage of workers as well as the US consumers. There was a growing call in the late 1800’s for the government to step in and regulate the economy, insuring safety and fair prices. The best example of this can be seen in the Granger movement. The Grangers (farmers) called for the regulation of the railroad companies that were charging unfair rates and exercising monopoly power over transportation. The resulting government action was the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act and the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the railroads and their rates.


Gilded Age: Question 15 of 100
A negative effect of holding companies, mergers, and pools on the United States during the late 19th century was that these combinations
  1. encouraged the Federal Government to spend more than its income
  2. reduced the need for labor unions
  3. decreased competition between businesses
  4. ended United States participation in inter-national trade

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: A monopoly is a business that controls a vast majority or all of the market for a specific good or service. Holding companies and pools are various forms of this idea in which one larger company may own many of the smaller companies within an industry. During the Gilded Age (late 1800’s) many areas of the US economy were dominated by monopolistic companies that drove competitions out of business, thereby reducing competition. It was not until the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 that the government made any attempts to regulate or control the business practices of these monopolies.


Gilded Age: Question 16 of 100
Nativism in the late 19th century was motivated primarily by
  1. hostility toward immigrant workers
  2. the need to reduce overcrowding in western states
  3. cultural conflicts with Native American Indians
  4. the migration of African Americans to northern cities

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: In the 1880’s a main fear of American unions was competition for jobs from floods of unskilled immigrants. Many unions took a “nativist” approach that called for the restriction of immigration. One such restriction was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1888 which halted immigration of Chinese workers into the US.


Gilded Age: Question 17 of 100
During the late 1800’s, labor unions in the United States had their greatest success in
  1. persuading the government to limit most immigration
  2. organizing skilled workers into craft unions
  3. winning the great majority of strikes
  4. achieving a legally guaranteed minimum wage

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Craft unions such as the American Federation of Labor were successful at organizing skilled or craft workers. This was more successful due to the fact that skilled workers are more difficult to replace. Organizing unskilled workers proved much tougher, as companies could easily replace such workers with any number of newly arrived immigrants willing to work for the wages they offered.


Gilded Age: Question 18 of 100
The Sherman Antitrust Act, the Social Security Act, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) are examples of
  1. Federal laws designed to protect consumers from unsafe products
  2. the Federal Government’s response to changes in the economy
  3. Federal laws designed to control spending
  4. the Federal Government’s attempts to regulate big business

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 banned “combinations in restraint of trade” or basically any monopoly that reduced competition in the marketplace, a direct response to the growth of monopolistic practices in the late 1800’s. Social Security was a response to the Great Depression and was designed to protect retiring workers, many of which were left with little to no retirement income. Finally FDIC was a response to the crisis in the US banking sector during the depression and was designed to insure depositors funds in case of a bank’s failure.


Gilded Age: Question 19 of 100
Which term best describes United States economic policy during the era of the rise of big business (1865-1900)?
  1. laissez-faire capitalism
  2. mercantilism
  3. Marxism
  4. welfare-state capitalism

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Laissez-Faire capitalism calls for the complete non-involvement of government in the economy. The approach is one of “hands-off”, in which prices, quality and competitive practices are solely determined by competition. This approach was advocated by the English economist Adam Smith in his work “The Wealth of Nations” and followed by the US government up until the late 1800’s, early 1900’s.


Gilded Age: Question 20 of 100
Which statement best describes the status of the labor union movement in the United States in 1900?
  1. Most of the labor force was organized into unions.
  2. Government and business opposition had destroyed the labor union movement.
  3. Unions were still struggling to gain public acceptance.
  4. Unions had won the right to strike and bargain collectively.

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: One of the greatest blows to union growth during this time was the Haymarket Riot in Chicago in 1886. During a labor rally at which the Knight of Labor union was represented, a bomb exploded killing nearly 20 people. The American public unduly blamed the KOL and as a result public support for the union movement was reduced.


Gilded Age: Question 21 of 100
The purpose of the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was to
  1. eliminate unfair business practices
  2. reduce imports from foreign nations
  3. reduce the power of the unions
  4. increase the power of local governments

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Many people during the Gilded Age were frustrated with business taking advantage of workers as well as the US consumers. There was a growing call in the late 1800’s for the government to step in and regulate the economy, insuring safety and fair practices. The best examples of this can be seen in the ICC and the Sherman Antitrust Act. The passage of the Interstate Commerce Act and the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission was designed to regulate the railroads and their rates. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 banned “combinations in restraint of trade” or basically any monopoly that reduced competition in the marketplace, a direct response to the growth of monopolistic practices in the late 1800’s.


Gilded Age: Question 22 of 100
Why did the United States follow a policy of unrestricted immigration for Europeans during most of the 1800’s?
  1. Business and industry depended on the foreign capital brought by immigrants.
  2. The American economy needed many unskilled workers.
  3. Most Americans desired a more diversified culture.
  4. The United States wanted to help European nations by taking in their surplus pop-ulation.

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: During the Gilded Age US industrial development was growing at an unprecedented rate. To fuel the increased demand for unskilled workers there was also an increase in immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Asia and elsewhere. These immigrants became known as “New Immigrants” as they were from different regions than the western European immigrants of “Old Immigration”.


Gilded Age: Question 23 of 100
Statement A: "The best way to economic recovery is to subsidize industry so that it will hire more workers and expand production."
Statement B: "If jobs are not available, the government must create jobs for those who are unemployed."
Statement C: "According to human nature, the most talented people will always come out on top."
Statement D: "Our government is responsible for the nation’s economic well-being."

Which statement is closest to the philosophy of Social Darwinism?
  1. Speaker A
  2. Speaker B
  3. Speaker C
  4. Speaker D

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: Based on the work of Charles Darwin in explaining evolution, Social Darwinism is the application of “survival of the fittest” to society and business. It held that weaker (or unfit) companies would die off at the hands of stronger, better and superior corporations. It was seen as justification of laissez-faire capitalism, as government should not interfere in the natural economic evolution by which smaller, weaker companies are eliminated. This concept was also applied to individual success, by which the most successful in society were thought to be the smartest, hardest working and as such most fit.


Gilded Age: Question 24 of 100
A common characteristic of third political parties in the United States is that they
  1. tend to focus on one person or one issue
  2. come into existence only during periods of corruption
  3. have dealt mainly with foreign policy issues
  4. have frequently forced Congress to decide Presidential elections

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: The vast majority of the third parties in American history have focused on one issue or one set of issues. For example, the Populists Party was focused on the reforms needed in government and the economy and most recently the Reform Party of Ross Perot was centered on the reduction of national debt and balancing of the budget.


Gilded Age: Question 25 of 100
Which situation brought about the rapid growth of industry between 1865 and 1900?
  1. high worker morale resulting from good wages and working conditions
  2. availability of investment capital
  3. establishment of western reservations for Native American Indians
  4. decline in the number of people attending schools

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Investment capital simply put is the availability of money and resources. Following the Civil War there was an excess of money and means of production, fueled by the northern war effort and the growth of the western United States. These circumstances, along with a body of entrepreneurs willing to risk investments and work to achieve success, resulted in unprecedented growth in American industry during this time period.


Gilded Age: Question 26 of 100
From 1865 to 1900, how did the growth of industry affect American society?
  1. The United States experienced the disappearance of the traditional
  2. Population centers shifted from the Northeast to the South
  3. Restrictions on immigration created a more homogeneous culture.
  4. The percentage of Americans living in urban areas increased.

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: The rise of American industry during the late 1800’s was mostly an urban occurrence. Areas such as New York City, Chicago, Boston and other major cities experienced huge influxes of population from rural locales as well as foreign immigration. This urbanization was occurring as people sought available jobs in the growing US factories, located in the cities. Another contributing factor was the increase in farming technology and efficiency, which reduced the need for farm workers and forced these displaced workers to seek other available employment.


Gilded Age: Question 27 of 100
During the late 1800’s, a major reaction to the activities of labor unions in the United States was that
  1. the press in most communities supported unions
  2. United States Presidents opposed the use of Federal troops to end strikes called by organized labor
  3. courts frequently issued injunctions to stop strikes
  4. most factory workers quickly joined the unions

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: The policy of the US government during the era of early union growth was to support industry in strikes and worker conflicts. In strikes such as the Great Railway Strike of 1877 and the Pullman Car Co. Strike of 1894, the federal government sided with the business, forcing the striking employees back to work.


Gilded Age: Question 28 of 100
Many wealthy American industralists of the late 19th century used the theory of Social Darwinism to
  1. support the labor union movement
  2. justify monopolistic actions
  3. promote legislation establishing a minimum wage
  4. encourage charitable orga-nizations to help the poor

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Based on the work of Charles Darwin in explaining evolution, Social Darwinism is the application of “survival of the fittest” to society and business. It held that weaker (or unfit) companies would die off at the hands of stronger, better and superior corporations. It was seen as justification of laissez-faire capitalism, as government should not interfere in the natural economic evolution by which smaller, weaker companies are eliminated. This concept was also applied to individual success, by which the most successful in society were thought to be the smartest, hardest working and as such most fit.


Gilded Age: Question 29 of 100
Prior to 1880, the number of immigrants to the United States was not restricted mainly because
  1. industry owners wanted cheap labor
  2. the nations of Europe dis-couraged emigration
  3. the United States birthrate was increasing
  4. Congress lacked the power to limit immigration

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: During the Gilded Age US industrial development was growing at an unprecedented rate. To fuel the increased demand for unskilled workers there was also an increase in immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Asia and elsewhere. These immigrants became known as “New Immigrants” as they were from different regions than the western European immigrants of “Old Immigration”.


Gilded Age: Question 30 of 100
Laws requiring individuals to pass civil service examinations to obtain government jobs were enacted to
  1. eliminate patronage and corruption in government hiring
  2. allow the government to compete with private industry for employees
  3. support the development of public employee labor unions
  4. encourage the growth of local political parties

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: The 1883 Pendleton Act created the civil service system as a way of reducing the effect of the “spoils system”. Under the spoils system, corruption in government was rampant as political jobs, appointments and access was based on favoritism and political connections. The Civil Service System was designed to grant jobs and such to the most qualified individuals, based mainly on their merit and skills.

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Gilded Age: Question 31 of 100
According to the theory of laissez faire, the economy functions best when the government
  1. subsidizes business so that it can compete worldwide
  2. regulates businesses for the good of the majority
  3. owns major industries
  4. does not interfere in business

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Laissez-Faire capitalism calls for the complete non-involvement of government in the economy. The approach is one of “hands-off”, in which prices, quality and competitive practices are solely determined by competition. This approach was advocated by the English economist Adam Smith in his work “The Wealth of Nations” and followed by the US government up until the late 1800’s, early 1900’s.


Gilded Age: Question 32 of 100
Businesses formed trusts, pools, and holding companies mainly to
  1. increase profits by eliminating competition
  2. offer a wide range of goods and services to consumers
  3. provide employment opportunities for minorities
  4. protect the interests of workers

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: A monopoly is a business that controls a vast majority or all of the market for a specific good or service. Holding companies and pools are various forms of this idea in which one larger company may own many of the smaller companies within an industry. During the Gilded Age (late 1800’s) many areas of the US economy were dominated by monopolistic companies that drove competitions out of business, thereby reducing competition. It was not until the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 that the government made any attempts to regulate or control the business practices of these monopolies.


Gilded Age: Question 33 of 100
The Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Hall, and the Morgan Library illustrate various ways that entrepreneurs and their descendants have
  1. suppressed the growth of labor unions
  2. supported philanthropic activities to benefit society
  3. applied scientific discoveries to industry
  4. attempted to undermine the United States eco-nomic system

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: Steel magnate Andrew Carnegie is perhaps the most famous of all philanthropists in American history. He once stated "The man who dies thus rich dies disgraced.", in this he is encouraging the donation of excess wealth for the betterment of society. Carnegie and his contemporaries donated huge sums for the construction of libraries, hospitals, schools and other public institutions. This American tradition continues today in the one billion dollar donation by Ted Turner to the United Nations and the on-going work of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

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Gilded Age: Question 34 of 100
The major reason the United States placed few restrictions on immigration during the 1800’s was that
  1. few Europeans wished to give up their economic security
  2. little opposition to immigration existed
  3. the growing economy needed a steady supply of cheap labor
  4. most immigrants spoke English and thus needed little or no education

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: During the Gilded Age US industrial development was growing at an unprecedented rate. To fuel the increased demand for unskilled workers there was also an increase in immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Asia and elsewhere. These immigrants became known as “New Immigrants” as they were from different regions than the western European immigrants of “Old Immigration”.


Gilded Age: Question 35 of 100
The American Federation of Labor became the first long-lasting, successful labor union in the United States mainly because it
  1. refused to participate in strikes against employers
  2. concentrated on organizing workers in industries in the South
  3. formed its own political party and elected many prolabor public officials
  4. fought for the rights of skilled workers

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Craft unions such as the American Federation of Labor were successful at organizing skilled or craft workers. This was more successful due to the fact that skilled workers are more difficult to replace. Organizing unskilled workers proved much tougher, as companies could easily replace such workers with any number of newly arrived immigrants willing to work for the wages they offered.


Gilded Age: Question 36 of 100
In the United States during the late 19th century, much of the prejudice expressed toward immigrants was based on the belief that they would
  1. cause overcrowding in farm areas
  2. refuse to become citizens
  3. support the enemies of the United States in wartime
  4. fail to assimilate into American society

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: There are two major ideas on the integration of immigrants into American society, cultural pluralism and assimilation. Cultural pluralism calls for the immigrant to retain his or her ethnic identity within American society, they may live in ethnic neighborhoods (like Chinatown in New York or San Francisco) and continue to speak their native language, continue traditions and retain a clearly identifiable way of life. Assimilation is the concept of shedding traditional practices and language for a more “American” way of life, as well as the adoption of English.


Gilded Age: Question 37 of 100
The actions of Jane Addams, Ida Tarbell, and Booker T. Washington illustrate that reform in the United States has
  1. utilized a variety of methods to achieve many goals
  2. depended on support from religious groups
  3. relied on programs initiated by the Federal Government
  4. promoted women’s suffrage as its main goal

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Many avenues have been tried in efforts at reform. Jane Addams worked to aid the new immigrants in adjusting to American society by way of settlement houses, such as her Hull House in Chicago. Ida Tarbell was a muckraking journalist who’s expose “The History of Standard Oil” in Harpers, helped to bring about the antitrust case against Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company. Finally Booker T. Washington wanted to help African-Americans achieve social equality through the attainment of vocational education that would allow them to first achieve economic equality.


Gilded Age: Question 38 of 100
Speaker A:"To preserve our American culture, people whose national origins do not match the origins of our nation’s founders must be refused admission."
Speaker B:". . . let us admit only the best educated from every racial and ethnic group . . ."
Speaker C:". . . there is an appalling danger to the American wage earner from the flood of low, unskilled, ignorant, foreign workers who have poured into the country . . ."
Speaker D:"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free . . ."

People who support unrestricted immigration would agree most with
  1. Speaker A
  2. Speaker B
  3. Speaker C
  4. Speaker D

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: In her poem “The New Colossus” inscribed on the base of the statue of liberty, Emma Lazarus writes: "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" The idea expressed is one of welcoming and openness to immigrants from all over the globe, a policy followed by the United States in the late 1800’s, in an efforts to fuel the demand for unskilled workers created by our rapid industrial growth during this time.


Gilded Age: Question 39 of 100
In the decades after the Civil War, the major result of the shift from single proprietorship to corporate organization was that business was able to
  1. make more efficient use of natural resources
  2. concentrate on improving the quality of manufactured goods
  3. provide workers with higher wages
  4. raise large sums of money

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Investment capital simply put is the availability of money and resources. Following the Civil War there was an excess of money and means of production, fueled by the northern war effort and the growth of the western United States. These circumstances, along with a body of entrepreneurs willing to risk investments and work to achieve success, resulted in unprecedented growth in American industry during this time period. Corporations were better suited to raising such capital, as they pooled the investments of many people, as opposed to relying on the finding of one individual.


Gilded Age: Question 40 of 100
During the period from 1865 to 1900, disputes between labor and management were often marked by
  1. the use of violence by both sides
  2. cooperative efforts to resolve differences
  3. government support of striking workers
  4. arbitration by the Federal Government

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: In the Homestead Strike against Carnegie Steel in 1892, workers struck in protest of a cut in pay. The management of the plant brought in security guards (some from the famous Pinkerton agency) to guard the plant. Hostilities ran high and violence resulted. In the wake of these hostilities 16 men were killed. Subsequently the National Guard was called into the break the strike and it ended with a loss for the union and few of the striking steel workers were rehired.


Gilded Age: Question 41 of 100
The Federal Civil Service System was begun in the late 19th century primarily to
  1. reward political party supporters
  2. reduce the practice of political patronage
  3. secure political campaign contributions
  4. provide government contracts for big business

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: The 1883 Pendleton Act created the civil service system as a way of reducing the effect of the “spoils system”. Under the spoils system, corruption in government was rampant as political jobs, appointments and access was based on favoritism and political connections. The Civil Service System was designed to grant jobs and such to the most qualified individuals, based mainly on their merit and skills.


Gilded Age: Question 42 of 100
During the 19th century, what was the major reason that an increasing number of states established public schools and passed compulsory education laws?
  1. Reformers argued that an educated, literate population was necessary for a successful democracy.
  2. The Supreme Court required the states to do so.
  3. Most jobs required a high school diploma.
  4. The United States had begun a massive program of technical training to enhance its international economic position.

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: Prior to the passage of child labor laws in the early 1900’s, there were little to few restrictions on the jobs or hours of child workers. As the public became aware of the working conditions many children were in (exemplified by children in coal mining, as depicted in “The Bitter Cry of the Children” by muckraker John Spargo) and the call for mandatory educational requirements by groups such as the Progressive Party, states passed restrictions on child labor.


Gilded Age: Question 43 of 100
Jacob Riis, Jane Addams, and Margaret Sanger are most closely associated with efforts to
  1. educate and train formerly enslaved persons
  2. preserve the natural environment
  3. advance the interests of organized labor
  4. improve conditions for the poor

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Many reformers have worked to increase the position of America’s poor. Jacob Riis was a muckraker who wrote about and photographed the conditions of New York City’s poorest in his book “How The Other Half Lives”, its widespread success helped to initiate calls for building codes, improved sanitation and access to better housing. . Jane Addams worked to aid the new immigrants in adjusting to American society by way of settlement houses, such as her Hull House in Chicago. Finally, Margaret Sanger worked for access to birth control methods for poor women, many of whom were unable to financially support growing families in the slums of America’s cities.


Gilded Age: Question 44 of 100
One way in which the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Gentlemen’s Agreement, and the National Origins Act were similar is that all were expressions of
  1. imperialism
  2. nativism
  3. militarism
  4. Manifest Destiny

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 45 of 100
Both the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in response to the problem of
  1. companies refusing to hire minority workers
  2. businesses choosing to hire illegal immigrants
  3. unsafe working conditions in factories
  4. business combinations limiting competition

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 46 of 100
Industrialists of the late 1800s contributed most to economic growth by
  1. supporting the efforts of labor unions
  2. establishing large corporations
  3. encouraging government ownership of banks
  4. opposing protective tariffs

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 47 of 100
According to the cartoon, how was the United States in the 1990s similar to the United States in the 1890s?
 

  1. Little need existed for government regulation.
  2. Investment in the stock market decreased.
  3. The price of petroleum products decreased.
  4. Business consolidation was accepted practice.

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 48 of 100
The main purpose of this 1886 poster was to
 

  1. oppose immigrants who took jobs from American workers
  2. support nativist calls for limitations on labor unions
  3. organize a protest against acts of police brutality against workers
  4. show support for police actions against foreign revolutionaries

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 49 of 100
During the second half of the 19th century, government commitment to the principles of laissez-faire capitalism contributed to
  1. healthy and positive competition between businesses
  2. the growth of small business firms
  3. friendly working relationships between labor and management
  4. economic domination by business trusts

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 50 of 100
In the late 19th century, owners of big businesses generally embraced Social Darwinism because it reinforced their belief that
  1. economic success demonstrates fitness to lead
  2. business monopolies are contrary to the social order
  3. all wealth should be returned to society
  4. economic competition should be regulated

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 51 of 100
Which factor most influenced the growth of the United States economy between 1865 and 1900?
  1. development of the sharecropping system
  2. success of organized labor
  3. governmental policy of laissez faire
  4. restrictions on immigration

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 52 of 100
Industrialists of the late 1800s used pools and trusts to
  1. promote fair business practices in the marketplace
  2. increase profits by minimizing competition
  3. work cooperatively with labor unions
  4. exclude immigrant workers from factory jobs

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 53 of 100
“Labor Leaders Executed for Causing Haymarket Riot” “State Militia Called In To End Homestead Strike” “1,000 Jailed as Silver Miners Protest Wage Cuts” Which statement about labor unions in the late 1800s is illustrated by these headlines?
  1. Strikes by labor unions usually gained public support.
  2. The government frequently opposed labor union activities.
  3. Labor union demands were usually met.
  4. Arbitration was commonly used to end labor unrest.

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 54 of 100
Which 19th-century business practice does this cartoon illustrate?
 

  1. forming cooperatives
  2. establishing trade zones
  3. creating monopolies
  4. expanding global markets

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 55 of 100
The cartoonist would most likely support federal government attempts to
 

  1. pass antitrust legislation
  2. limit regulation of business
  3. establish high tariffs
  4. stop industrial pollution

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 56 of 100
One factor that furthered industrialization in the United States between 1865 and 1900 was the
  1. development of the airplane
  2. expansion of the railroads
  3. mass production of automobiles
  4. widespread use of steamboats

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 57 of 100
The term business monopoly can best be described as
  1. the most common form of business in the United States
  2. government control of the means of production
  3. an agreement between partners to manage a corporation
  4. a company that controls or dominates an industry

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 58 of 100
During the late 19th century, Samuel Gompers, Terence Powderly, and Eugene Debs were leaders in the movement to
  1. stop racial segregation of Native American Indians
  2. limit illegal immigration
  3. gain fair treatment of Native American Indians
  4. improve working conditions

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 59 of 100
The 19th-century philosophy of Social Darwinism maintained that
  1. the government should have control over the means of production and the marketplace
  2. all social class distinctions in American society should be eliminated
  3. economic success comes to those who are the hardest working and most competent
  4. wealth and income should be more equally distributed

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 60 of 100
During the late 1800s, industrialization in the United States led to
  1. the growth of the middle class
  2. an overall decline in labor union membership
  3. the creation of affirmative action programs
  4. a decrease in the use of natural resources

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 61 of 100
In the late 19th century, the major argument used by labor union leaders against immigrants was that immigrants
  1. took jobs from United States citizens
  2. contributed little to enrich American life
  3. placed financial drains on social services
  4. refused to assimilate into American culture

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 62 of 100
Which generalization about population growth is supported by information in this chart?
 

  1. For every census listed, rural population exceeded urban population.
  2. By 1920, more people lived in cities than in rural areas.
  3. The Civil War significantly slowed the rate of population growth.
  4. Most urban population growth was due to people migrating from rural areas.

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 63 of 100
The slogan “Eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep, eight hours for what we will” was used in the late 1800s to promote a major goal of
  1. farmers
  2. politicians
  3. industrialists
  4. organized labor

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 64 of 100
A significant contribution to the industrialization of the United States was Henry Ford’s development of
  1. the assembly line
  2. electric-powered vehicles
  3. the first holding company
  4. a new process for making steel

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 65 of 100
One reason John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J. Pierpont Morgan were sometimes called robber barons was because they
  1. robbed from the rich to give to the poor
  2. made unnecessarily risky investments
  3. used ruthless business tactics against their competitors
  4. stole money from the federal government

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 66 of 100
In the 19th century, protective tariffs, subsidies for railroads, and open immigration showed that the federal government followed a policy of
  1. support for economic development
  2. noninterference in the free-market system
  3. regulation of unfair business practices
  4. support for organized labor

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 67 of 100
Which United States foreign policy was most directly related to the rise of big business in the late 1800s?
  1. détente
  2. neutrality
  3. containment
  4. imperialism

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 68 of 100
Which statement describes a result of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?
  1. Farm production decreased.
  2. Slavery in the South increased.
  3. The population of the cities decreased.
  4. Immigration to the United States increased.

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 69 of 100
What was the main benefit that labor unions of the late 19th century gained for their members?
  1. job security
  2. improved wages and hours
  3. paid vacations
  4. health insurance

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 70 of 100
During the late 1800s, business leaders formed trusts mainly to
  1. reduce prices
  2. eliminate competition
  3. improve worker productivity
  4. establish overseas factories

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 71 of 100
What is the main idea of this cartoon?
 

  1. The Standard Oil Company was a harmful monopoly.
  2. The best way to develop major industries was to form proprietorships.
  3. Government regulations were strangling the Standard Oil Company.
  4. Foreign competition in the oil industry was hurting American companies.

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 72 of 100
In the late 1800s, the theory of laissez-faire capitalism was used by many industrialists to
  1. petition the government for assistance during times of financial crisis
  2. oppose colonial expansion in Africa and Asia
  3. argue against government regulation of business practices
  4. defend limits on the number of immigrants allowed to work in factories

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 73 of 100
During the late 1800s, a major reason labor unions had difficulty achieving their goals was that
  1. government supported business over labor
  2. industrialization created better working conditions
  3. there was a shortage of new workers
  4. businesses promoted labor officials to management positions

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 74 of 100

Speaker A: “When demand ran high, and markets were scarce,
he showed little mercy, broke his contracts for delivery and raised prices.”

Speaker B: “The man of wealth must hold his fortune ‘in trust’ for the
community and use it for philanthropic and charitable purposes.”

Speaker C: “It is cruel to slander the rich because they have been successful.
They have gone into great enterprises that have enriched the nation and
the nation has enriched them.”

Speaker D: “The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up
colossal fortunes for the few, unprecedented in the history of mankind.”

 

Which two speakers would most likely label late 19th-century industrialists as robber barons?


  1. A and B
  2. A and D
  3. B and C
  4. C and D

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 75 of 100

Speaker A: “When demand ran high, and markets were scarce,
he showed little mercy, broke his contracts for delivery and raised prices.”

Speaker B: “The man of wealth must hold his fortune ‘in trust’ for the
community and use it for philanthropic and charitable purposes.”

Speaker C: “It is cruel to slander the rich because they have been successful.
They have gone into great enterprises that have enriched the nation and
the nation has enriched them.”

Speaker D: “The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up
colossal fortunes for the few, unprecedented in the history of mankind.”

 

The most valid conclusion that can be drawn from the different viewpoints of these speakers is that industrialists of the late 19th century


  1. benefited and harmed society
  2. treated their workers fairly
  3. used illegal means to gain wealth
  4. generally opposed the free-enterprise economic system

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 76 of 100
What is the main idea of this cartoon from the 1800s?
 

  1. Labor is gaining power over big business.
  2. Most Americans support the labor movement.
  3. Business has advantages over labor.
  4. Government should support the expansion of railroads.

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 77 of 100
The American Federation of Labor responded to the situation shown in the cartoon by
 

  1. organizing skilled workers into unions
  2. encouraging open immigration
  3. forming worker-owned businesses
  4. creating a single union of workers and farmers

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 78 of 100
In the late 1800s, supporters of laissez-faire capitalism claimed that government regulation of business would be
  1. essential to protect the rights of consumers
  2. necessary to provide jobs for the unemployed
  3. useful in competing with foreign nations
  4. harmful to economic growth

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 79 of 100
Which economic concept is best illustrated by the cartoon?
 

  1. supply and demand
  2. mercantilism
  3. monopoly
  4. trade

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 80 of 100
Mark Twain labeled the late 1800s in the United States the “Gilded Age” to describe the
  1. end of the practice of slavery
  2. absence of international conflicts
  3. extremes of wealth and poverty
  4. achievements of the labor movement

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 81 of 100
During the 19th century, New York was one of the most powerful states in the nation because it
  1. became the financial and industrial center of the nation
  2. led the nation in achieving political reforms
  3. produced more presidents than any other state
  4. offered more civil liberties than any other state

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 82 of 100
During the late 19th century, which practices were used by employers against workers?
  1. boycotts and lockouts
  2. picketing and walkouts
  3. blacklists and yellow-dog contracts
  4. mass rallies and sit-down strikes

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 83 of 100
The term robber baron was used to criticize the
  1. tactics of big-business leaders
  2. corruption of government officials
  3. dishonesty of carpetbaggers
  4. unskilled labor of illegal immigrants

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 84 of 100
What major trend related to population occurred during the industrialization boom of the late 1800s?
  1. Immigration decreased
  2. Suburbanization decreased
  3. Urbanization increased
  4. Migration to rural areas increased

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 85 of 100
Henry Ford produced a more affordable car primarily because his company
  1. paid workers lower wages than its competitors paid
  2. used foreign-made parts
  3. developed a less expensive method of production
  4. offered a variety of options to buyers

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 86 of 100
In a United States history textbook, the terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel of Wealth, and mechanization would most likely be found in a chapter entitled
  1. Reconstruction (1865–1877)
  2. Industrialization (1870–1900)
  3. Imperialism (1898–1905)
  4. The Roaring Twenties (1920–1929)

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 87 of 100
Both the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act were
  1. inspired by the effectiveness of earlier state laws
  2. designed to protect business from foreign competition
  3. declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the late 1800s
  4. passed by the federal government to regulate big business

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 88 of 100
During the late 1800s, the defenders of Social Darwinism would most likely have supported
  1. labor unions
  2. progressive income taxes
  3. laissez-faire capitalism
  4. environmental conservation

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 89 of 100

“. . . This, then, is held to be the duty of the man of Wealth: First, to set an example of modest,
unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the
legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and after doing so to consider all surplus revenues
which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as
a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to
produce the most beneficial results for the community— . . .”

— Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American Review, June 1889

According to this passage, the responsibility of the wealthy is to


  1. invest in future industry to increase wealth
  2. share their excess wealth with the community
  3. maintain a lifestyle consistent with their wealth
  4. influence government to assist all people

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 90 of 100
What is the main idea of the cartoon?
 

  1. Government policies have created a recession
  2. Americans support the activities of trusts
  3. Good government has saved the country from trusts
  4. Trusts are a threat to the nation

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 91 of 100
Which group would most likely have favored government action to address the issue shown in the cartoon?
 

  1. bankers
  2. unions
  3. industrialists
  4. railroad owners

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 92 of 100
Which development led to the other three?
  1. growth of tenements and slums
  2. shift from a rural to an urban lifestyle
  3. rapid industrial growth
  4. widespread use of child labor

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 93 of 100
Which group’s numbers increased the most as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
  1. skilled craftsmen
  2. landed aristocracy
  3. owners of small farms
  4. urban middle class

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 94 of 100
Business leaders John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt were referred to as robber barons primarily because they
  1. bought titles of nobility from foreign governments
  2. were ruthless in dealing with competitors
  3. stole money from state and local governments
  4. gained all of their wealth by illegal means

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 95 of 100
During the late 1800s, what was the main reason labor unions had difficulty achieving gains for workers?
  1. Communists had taken control of the major unions
  2. The government supported business efforts to limit the powers of unions
  3. Most unions had been organized by big business.
  4. Most workers were satisfied with working conditions.

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 96 of 100

The growth of a large business is merely survival
of the fittest. The American beauty rose can be produced in the splendor and fragrance which bring cheer to its beholder only by sacrificing the early buds which grow up around it. This is not an evil tendency in business. It is merely the working out of a law of nature and a law of God. . . .” -
John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

Which concept is described by this passage?


  1. communism
  2. Populism
  3. utopian socialism
  4. Social Darwinism

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 97 of 100
The growth of big business in the late 1800s resulted in
  1. a reduction in child labor
  2. the elimination of the middle class
  3. the widening of the economic gap between rich and poor
  4. a shift in transportation investment from railroads to canals

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 98 of 100
In the late 19th century, Congress tried to limit the power of monopolies by
  1. creating the Federal Trade Commission
  2. strengthening the Supreme Court
  3. adopting Granger laws
  4. passing the Sherman Antitrust Act

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 99 of 100
According to the graph, which was the first year in which more Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas?
 

  1. 1860
  2. 1890
  3. 1920
  4. 1930

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation:


Gilded Age: Question 100 of 100
What was a major cause of the trend shown in the chart?
 

  1. availability of cheap farmland
  2. increased industrialization
  3. end of restrictions on immigration
  4. completion of the interstate highway system

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:




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