Regents Prep: U.S. History & Government
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Federalist Era: Question 1 of 16
The speakers below are discussing foreign policies that the United States has followed at various times. Base your answers on their statements and on your knowledge of social studies.

Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.
Speaker B: The United States will give economic aid to needy countries anywhere in the world, but will not provide military aid.
Speaker C: The United States must prevent the growth of communism.
Speaker D: The United States can take over other countries to help them become more like us.

Which speaker states a policy most similar to the foreign policy advice given by President George Washington in his Farewell Address?
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans, but to continue economic ties with the continent. He also sent warnings about the dangers of political parties and the factions they could create, dividing the American people.


Federalist Era: Question 2 of 16
When John Marshall was Chief Justice, United States Supreme Court decisions tended to strengthen the power of
  1. the National Government
  2. state and local governments
  3. labor unions
  4. trusts and monopolies

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: John Marshall had been nominated by John Adams and was a strong Federalist judge. As Chief Justice, Marshall moved the Supreme Court to decisions that favored and strengthened the Federal Government and its superiority over the states. Decisions such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) and others are testimony to this expansion and protection of the federal government.


Federalist Era: Question 3 of 16
Alexander Hamilton’s argument that the government has the power to create a National Bank is based on which part of the Constitution?
  1. the Preamble
  2. the elastic clause
  3. guarantees to the States
  4. the Bill of Rights

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation: The elastic clause or the necessary and proper clause in the Constitution, allows Congress to expand its powers beyond the actual text of the Constitution in order to carry out its duties of running the nation. In the case of the National Bank, Hamilton argued that creating the bank fell within the realm of a necessary and proper action, needed to effectively manage the US economy. The bank would remain a divisive issue in early American history as opinions differed over the legality of its creation. It was the center of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and the “Bank War” under President Andrew Jackson.


Federalist Era: Question 4 of 16
"All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are the rich and well born, the other the mass of the people. . . . The people are turbulent and changing. . . . Give therefore to the first class a distinct permanent share in the government. They will check the unsteadiness of the second."

-Alexander Hamilton


The author of this quotation suggests that
  1. the will of the majority should guide public policy
  2. wealthy people are too preoccupied to rule well
  3. the common people cannot be trusted to run a stable government
  4. poorer people must work harder to gain access to economic and political power

Correct Answer Number: 3

Explanation: Alexander Hamilton and many within his Federalist supporters distrusted the uneducated, rural population of America and did not wish to extend them too much say within government. This is evident in the Constitution as ratified in 1789, as the only direct election called for was for the lower house of Congress (House of Reps.). Senators were originally selected by the legislatures of the states and the president in-directly elected by an electoral college.


Federalist Era: Question 5 of 16
Actions and policies of the Government under President George Washington generally resulted in the
  1. establishment of strong political ties with other nations
  2. liberation of many enslaved persons
  3. failure to create a sound financial program for the country
  4. strengthening of the Federal Government

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: Washington was a supporter of a strong national government. He enacted policies such as the creation of the National Bank (part of Hamilton’s financial plan) and the use of federal troops to quell the Whiskey Rebellion to effectively use the powers of a strong federal government.


Federalist Era: Question 6 of 16
Speaker A:"We must take action even if we are not sure it will work. To do nothing to stop them would be a repeat of the Munich mistake."
Speaker B:"We must recognize the increasing interdependence of nations and join the United Nations."
Speaker C:"Stopping the spread of communism can and must take several forms. We must be willing to do whatever is necessary."
Speaker D:"Involvement in European affairs would be a mistake. We should not jeopardize our peace and prosperity over issues that Europe’s ambitions and rivalries control."

Which speaker best describes the basic foreign policy of the United States until the late 1800’s?
  1. Speaker A
  2. Speaker B
  3. Speaker C
  4. Speaker D

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans, but to continue economic ties with the continent. This policy of neutrality in Europe (and in most external affairs) remained a fixture of US foreign policy up until the growth of US imperialism in the late 1800’s.


Federalist Era: Question 7 of 16
"Our true policy is to steer clear of permanent alliances . . . ."
-George Washington


President Washington made this statement to warn against United States involvement in
  1. European military conflicts
  2. international trade
  3. the race for overseas colonies
  4. westward expansion

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans, but to continue economic ties with the continent. This policy of neutrality in Europe (and in most external affairs) remained a fixture of US foreign policy up until the growth of US imperialism in the late 1800’s.


Federalist Era: Question 8 of 16
The significance of the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison is that the decision
  1. advanced civil rights for minorities
  2. upheld the constitutionality of a national bank
  3. limited Presidential control of foreign policy
  4. established the power of judicial review

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation: The specific power of Judicial Review is not addressed in article 3 of the Constitution, however many Constitutional scholars agree the founding fathers meant the Supreme Court to have this power. The court’s decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) effectively cemented the Supreme Court’s claim to judicial review, in which the court first stated the right to declare laws unconstitutional.


Federalist Era: Question 9 of 16
Alexander Hamilton urged Congress to pass a protective tariff to encourage the growth of
  1. labor unions
  2. manufacturing
  3. agriculture
  4. slavery

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 10 of 16
What was the result of many of the Supreme Court decisions made under Chief Justice John Marshall between 1801 and 1835?
  1. The system of slavery was weakened.
  2. The federal government was strengthened.
  3. The rights of workers were supported.
  4. Antitrust laws were upheld.

Correct Answer Number: 2

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 11 of 16
“It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. . . .” — Marbury v. Madison, 1803 This statement expresses the Supreme Court’s claim that
  1. courts must abide by a strict interpretation of the Constitution
  2. federal laws must be approved by the courts before they can take effect
  3. the judicial branch must have a role in the amendment process
  4. the power of judicial review belongs to the courts

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 12 of 16
Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan helped to establish the credit of the United States government by
  1. providing for the payment of the nation’s debts
  2. taxing only the people most able to pay
  3. favoring agriculture over industry
  4. encouraging spending for national defense

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 13 of 16
One factor that led to the formation of the first two political parties in the United States in the 1790s was the conflict over the
  1. distribution of power between the federal and state governments
  2. spread of slavery into the western territories
  3. control of interstate commerce
  4. acquisition of lands from France and Spain

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 14 of 16
One major reason that Alexander Hamilton proposed a national bank was to
  1. improve the economic position of the United States government
  2. help state governments collect taxes
  3. make loans available to owners of small farms
  4. reduce foreign investment in the United States

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 15 of 16
A major reason the Antifederalists opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution was because the Constitution
  1. created a national bank
  2. lacked a provision for a federal court system
  3. failed to provide for the direct election of members of the House of Representatives
  4. changed the balance of power between the state and national governments

Correct Answer Number: 4

Explanation:


Federalist Era: Question 16 of 16
President George Washington pursued a foreign policy of neutrality during his administration primarily because he believed that
  1. the United States needed time to gain economic and military strength
  2. treaties were prohibited by the Constitution
  3. the United States should not expand by force
  4. alliances should be established with both France and England

Correct Answer Number: 1

Explanation:




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