Vocabulary: active site, antibodies, ATP, catalyst, cellular respiration, denatured, enzymes, hormones, hydrolysis, pH, specific, substrate, synthesis, temperature
In all organisms, organic compounds such as glucose can be used to make other molecules. These molecules include proteins, DNA, starch, and fats. The chemical energy stored in bonds can be used as a source of energy for life processes.
Stored energy is released when chemical bonds are broken during cellular respiration and new compounds with lower energy bonds are formed. Cells usually transfer this energy temporarily in phosphate bonds of a high-energy compound called ATP. (adenosine triphosphate)
Equations for Cell Respiration
glucose + oxygen →
carbon dioxide + water + 36 ATP
The energy from ATP is then used by the organism to obtain, transform, and transport materials, and to eliminate wastes.
water + ATP →
ADP + P + Energy (ATP-ase)
Note: ADP is adenosine diphosphate.
This reaction is reversible and ADP can be converted back to ATP in cellular respiration.
Types of Reactions
hydrolysis: reaction in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules. Chemical digestion is an example of a hydrolysis reaction
synthesis: the combining of simpler molecules to form a more complex molecule
Biochemical processes, both breakdown (hydrolysis) and synthesis, are made possible by enzymes. Enzymes and other molecules, such as hormones and antibodies, have specific shapes that influence both how they function and how they interact with other molecules.
Enzyme Structure and Function
catalyst: inorganic or organic substance which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without entering the reaction itself.
enzymes: organic catalysts made of protein.
- most enzyme names end in -ase
- enzymes lower the energy needed to start a chemical reaction (activation energy), thus speeding the reaction
How do enzymes work?
substrate: molecules upon which an enzyme acts. The enzyme is shaped so that it can only lock up with a specific substrate molecule.
substrate -------------> product
Lock and Key Theory
Each enzyme is specific for one and ONLY one substrate (one lock - one key)
active site: part of the enzyme that fits with the substrate
Note that the active site has a specific fit for this particular substrate and no other.
This theory has some weaknesses, but it explains many basic things about enzyme function.
Since the enzyme may unhook from the substrate, it may be reused many times.
Factors Influencing Enzyme Activity
pH: the optimum (best) in most living things is close to 7 (neutral). High or low pH levels usually slow enzyme activity
Temperature: strongly influences enzyme activity
- optimum (best) temperature for maximum enzyme function is usually about 35-40 C.
- reactions proceed slowly below optimal temperatures
- above 45 C. most enzymes are denatured (change in their shape so the enzyme active site no longer fits with the substrate and the enzyme can't function)
Concentrations of Enzyme and Substrate
When there is a fixed amount of enzyme and an excess of substrate molecules, the rate of reaction will increase to a point and then level off.
This leveling off occurs because all of the enzyme is used up and the excess substrate has nothing to combine with.
If more enzyme is available than substrate, a similar reaction rate increase and leveling off will occur. The excess enzyme will eventually run out of substrate molecules to react with.
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